Quadra is able to carry out all the electrical safety, noise and vibration tests, etc., necessary for the characterization of the machines and the evaluation of the functional characteristics and the elements of danger, through its own instrumentation and qualified technicians with many years of experience. The adoption of standardized methods and the use of cutting-edge tools and periodically calibrated at accredited centers allows to obtain certain, repeatable and recognized measurements.
In particular, Quadra is able to carry out measurements and tests relating to:
- electromagnetic fields;
- optical radiation;
- industrial thermography;
- electrical safety (as required by the CEI EN 60204-1 standard);
- stopping times of dangerous elements ;
- electromagnetic compatibility.
Industrial machinery noise tests
Machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way that the risks due to the emission of noise are reduced to a minimum, taking into account technical progress and the availability of means to limit noise, particularly at the source.
Furthermore, in the event of exceeding the thresholds provided for in the regulations of Annex I of Directive 2006/42 / EC , the manufacturer must declare the levels of pressure / acoustic power emitted by the machine in the instruction manual and in illustrative or promotional publications.
Quadra deals with the measurement and analysis of the noise levels emitted by the machines in order to verify their compliance and define any necessary protection measures.
The measurements are validated by competent technicians in the field of environmental acoustics using class 1 real-time noise analyzers, periodically calibrated at LAT centers to guarantee their performance over time and fully satisfy all legislative requirements.
The determination of the noise levels emitted by machines and equipment, and the related test report, complies with the requirements of the reference standards (UNI EN ISO 11202, UNI EN ISO 11203, UNI EN ISO 11204, UNI EN ISO 3744 and UNI EN ISO 3746) all harmonized under the Machinery Directive 2006/42 / EC.
The services offered by Quadra in the field of the study of acoustic phenomena are:
- measurements of the noise emitted by machines in accordance with the provisions of the machinery directive 2006/42 / EC;
- measurements of the noise emitted by machinery and equipment intended for outdoor operation (directive 2000/14 / EC);
- planning of acoustic attenuation and reclamation interventions;
- Noise level surveys in the workplace and assessment of the risk of exposure to noise (Legislative Decree 81/2008).
Vibration measurement of industrial machines
Machinery must be designed and constructed in such a way that the risks due to transmitted vibrations are reduced to a minimum, taking into account technical progress and the availability of means to reduce the vibrations, in particular at the source.
Furthermore, for some categories of machinery, it may be necessary to measure and declare the vibration levels transmitted by the machine to the operator in the event of exceeding the thresholds provided for in Annex I of Directive 2006/42 / EC.
Quadra deals with the measurement and analysis of the vibration levels emitted by the machines and transmitted to the hand-arm system or to the whole body of operators standing or sitting in the workstation in order to verify compliance and define any necessary protection measures. .
The measurements are carried out by expert technicians using spectrum analyzers periodically calibrated at LAT centers to guarantee their performance over time and fully satisfy all legislative requirements.
The services offered by Quadra in the field of the study of vibratory phenomena are:
- measurements of vibrations transmitted to the hand-arm system by portable hand-held or hand-guided machines;
- measurements of vibrations transmitted to the whole body for operators in a sitting or standing position;
- definition of mitigation measures and protection measures;
- assessment of the risks of exposure to vibrations (Legislative Decree 81/2008).
Measure electromagnetic fields emitted by machines
As foreseen by the machinery directive (essential safety and health protection requirement 1.5.10 "radiation"), the manufacturer must assess whether the machine generates electromagnetic fields that are potentially dangerous for the exposed persons, with particular reference to the workstations where the presence of the operator. From the outcome of this assessment it may be necessary:
- eliminate or reduce undesirable radiation emissions from the machine;
- reduce the functional emissions emitted during the adjustment, operation and cleaning of the machine to levels that do not have negative effects on people;
- assign an emission category to the machine as required by the UNI EN 12198 standard (harmonized pursuant to the Machinery Directive 2006/42 / EC);
- adapt the machine instruction manual indicating the residual risks that remain and the complementary protection measures adopted;
- in the presence of significant electromagnetic fields, indicate the value detected by the instrumental measurements and the relative classification on the illustrative or promotional material.
Through the use of specific instrumentation for this type of quantities, Quadra is able to perform measurements of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic field emissions for low and high frequency sources and for sources of magnetic fields that vary over time, aimed at evaluating and reducing. the risks generated by the radiation emitted by the machinery (UNI EN 12198 and other applicable standards) and / or the assessment of the risk of exposure of workers (CEI EN 50499).
Measurement of optical radiation emitted by machines
Similarly to the provisions for the emission of electromagnetic fields, also for artificial optical radiation (AOR) the manufacturer must assess whether the machine generates potentially dangerous radiations, eliminating or reducing them and adopting adequate protection measures if there are risks.
Depending on the level of radiation emission, the manufacturer must assign the machine a category of radiation emission for which various protection, information and training measures are envisaged. If the radiation emission category is 1 or 2, the manufacturer must declare as additional information the type and level of radiation that can be emitted by the machine.
This aspect is particularly relevant in situations of functional emissions of ultraviolet radiation (electric arc welding, welding robots with observable work areas, etc.) and of infrared radiation (melting furnaces, incandescent bodies such as metal or molten glass and their processing, radiative lamps and heaters, etc.) since it may be necessary to define specific protection measures (screens and guards, personal protective equipment, etc.).
Quadra is able, through appropriate instrumentation and qualified technicians, to perform measurements of artificial optical radiation aimed at assessing the risk generated by the machine (essential safety and health protection requirement 1.5.10 "radiation") and classification of the same with reference to the UNI EN 12198 standard (harmonized pursuant to directive 2006/42 / EC). This standard provides for evaluating the level of radiation emission (measurement of radiance and / or irradiance performed with a spectroradiometer and photoradiometer), assigning the correct emission category, determining the appropriate protection measures and providing the necessary information to the users of the machine.
Industrial thermography industrial machines
Thermography is a non-destructive diagnostic technique that allows to detect and record the infrared radiation emitted by a body without coming into contact with it, obtaining the surface thermal mapping of the object.
This technology can be used as an investigation tool for the preventive identification of anomalies and predictive maintenance, allowing to identify the weak points of structures, plants or systems such as overheating and friction of mechanical components, damaged bearings and joints, conductors and electrical components defective, damage to the insulating and insulating material, deposits in the pipes, etc.
The preventive detection of anomalies allows you to discover the problem before it becomes a failure, avoiding downtime for the restoration of the systems and ensuring the customer a saving in terms of time and resources used (downtime, breakdowns, accidents or injuries).
Quadra performs thermographic analyzes both in the industrial environment (fault finding and predictive maintenance) and in the building field (insulation, thermal bridges and energy efficiency).
Electrical safety tests of machines
The electrical equipment of the machines must be subjected to safety tests, in accordance with the requirements of the CEI EN 60204-1: 2018 standard.
These tests must be carried out on all machine models produced to ensure that the wiring has been carried out correctly and that there are no damages or defects that could cause electrical hazards for people, for example conductors with damaged insulation.
We can carry out the following tests:
- continuity test of the equipotential protection circuit in accordance with the requirements of test 1 of §18.2.2 of the standard CEI EN 60204-1: 2018;
- measurement of the fault loop impedance in accordance with the requirements of test 2 of §18.2.2 of the standard CEI EN 60204-1: 2018;
- test of the insulation resistance between the conductors of the power circuit and the conductors of the equipotential protection circuit in accordance with the requirements of §18.3 of the standard CEI EN 60204-1: 2018;
- voltage test applied between the conductors of the power circuit and the conductors of the equipotential protection circuit to verify their dielectric strength in accordance with the requirements of §18.4 of the standard CEI EN 60204-1: 2018;
- residual voltage test in accordance with the requirements of §18.5 of the standard CEI EN 60204-1: 2018.
However, sometimes it is difficult to do all these tests, in this case we can calculate the impedance of the fault loop as described in the article:
Protection against faults in electrical equipment of machines according to CEI EN 60204-1: 2018: tests or calculations?
Measurement of stopping times of dangerous elements
The measurement of the stopping time of dangerous elements is carried out in order to verify compliance with the requirements of the UNI EN ISO 13855: 2010 standard: "Safety of machinery - Positioning of means of protection according to the approach speeds of parts of the human body".
These data must be determined to verify the correct positioning of the protection devices (photoelectric barriers, interlocking devices for movable guards, etc.) or of the controls that protect operators from dangerous conditions (two-hand controls, etc.).
Measurement equipment used for tests
To carry out the tests we use the tools described below.
Real-time spectrum analyzer sound level meter with filters compliant with EN 61260: 1995 (now IEC 61260-1: 2014), Class 1 according to EN 60651: 1994 and EN 60804: 1994 (now CEI EN 61672-1: 2014 and CEI EN 61672 -2: 2014)
Sound level meter integrating spectrum analyzer in real time
Portable electromagnetic fields meter
Wide band isotropic electric field sensor for high frequencies
Selective isotropic analyzer of electric and magnetic fields at low frequencies
Portable electromagnetic fields meter
Photoradiometer equipped with 6 different sensors to cover the different spectral portions, in particular:
Photometric sensor for measuring illuminance (luxmeter)
Radiometric sensor for the UV band (220 ÷ 400 nm) with spectral weight factor S (λ).
Radiometric sensor for the UVA band (315 ÷ 400 nm).
Radiometric sensor for the 400 ÷ 700 nm band (blue) with spectral weight factor B (λ).
Radiometric sensor for the IR band (700 ÷ 1300 nm) with spectral weight factor R (λ).
Thermopile sensor for the measurement of irradiance in the infrared, spectral range 400 ÷ 2800 nm
Optics with diffuser and cosine correction (for irradiance measurements)
Optics with a 2 degree angle of view (radiance measurements)
Electronic dynamometer 50 kg
Multifunctional instrument for insulation resistance tests , dielectric strength continuity, capacitor discharge time
Stopping time analyzer for dangerous machine elements
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